Name: 
 

Methods Midterm Two MC Practice Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

In general, as sample size increases
a.
the standard error increases in size
b.
the standard error decreases in size
c.
the standard error will remain the same regardless of changes in sample size
d.
the standard error is a constant
e.
the standard error fluctuates in size
 

 2. 

Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample
a.
eliminates the need for simple random sampling
b.
is most useful for studying a homogeneous population
c.
eliminates the need for probability sampling
d.
is an alternative to either random or systematic sampling
e.
none of the above
 
 
Research Scenario

You are doing research on hospital personnel--orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories.
 

 3. 

Refer to Research Scenario. Suppose the researcher in wanted to use nonprobability sampling. An appropriate strategy would be
a.
simple random sampling
b.
quota sampling
c.
cluster sampling
d.
stratified sampling
e.
accidental sampling
 

 4. 

You want to examine the relationship between family size and family cohesion. You use as your sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?
a.
simple random sampling
b.
quota sampling
c.
cluster sampling
d.
stratified sampling
e.
reliance on available subjects
 

 5. 

Statistical computations assume that you have done
a.
simple random sampling
b.
systematic sampling
c.
cluster sampling
d.
stratified sampling
e.
any one of the above is assumed
 
 
Smith

After taking a random start between 1 and 20 and then taking every 20th element from the sampling frame, Smith learned that 40% of the sample believed the company's president was doing a good job. The calculated standard error was 3 percent.
 

 6. 

Refer to Smith. This means that
a.
between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job
b.
you are 95% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job
c.
you are 68% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job
d.
you are 99% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job
e.
none of the above
 

 7. 

Experiments are least appropriate for research projects that involve
a.
small-group interaction
b.
hypothesis testing
c.
testing relatively limited and well-defined concepts and propositions
d.
descriptive purposes
e.
explanatory purposes
 

 8. 

The Solomon four-group design
a.
combines the classical experimental design with the posttest-only control group design
b.
combines the classical experimental design with the pretest-only control group design
c.
combines the classical experimental design with the static-group comparison design
d.
combines the static-group comparison design with the one-group pretest-posttest design
e.
none of the above
 

 9. 

Preexperimental designs
a.
are the weakest experimental designs
b.
control for most sources of internal invalidity
c.
control for most sources of external invalidity
d.
are excellent for drawing causal inferences
e.
are highly recommended by Campbell and Stanley
 

 10. 

The experimental and control groups should be comparable on
a.
variables that are likely to be related to the independent variable under study
b.
variables that are likely to be related to the dependent variable under study
c.
age, education, and ethnicity
d.
all of the above
e.
only b and c are correct
 

 11. 

The primary function of the probe is to
a.
loosen up the respondent
b.
get the correct answer from the respondent
c.
get the respondent to answer a question more fully
d.
indicate an understanding and interest in the respondent
e.
all of the above
 

 12. 

One of the most important natural abilities of good interviewers is their ability to
a.
dress in a fashion similar to that of the people being interviewed
b.
determine very quickly the kind of person the respondent will feel most comfortable with
c.
rephrase questions in their own words
d.
probe for responses
e.
pry into the respondent's personal life
 

 13. 

Which of the following lists the three main methods of administering survey questionnaires to a sample of respondents?
a.
Self-administered questionnaires, telephone interviews, and mail surveys
b.
Face-to-face interviews, CATI surveys, and telephone surveys
c.
Face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, and electronic surveys
d.
Telephone interviews, electronic surveys, and self-administered questionnaires
e.
Face-to-face interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and telephone surveys
 

 14. 

In general, survey research is an appropriate observational method for
a.
describing a population too large to observe directly
b.
descriptive, exploratory, and explanatory purposes
c.
the measurement of attitudes prevalent in a larger population
d.
studies that have individual people as the unit of analysis
e.
all of the above
 

 15. 

When follow-ups are planned with mail surveys
a.
the anonymity of respondents can no longer be guaranteed
b.
more thoughtful answers are usually provided by those who wait until the follow-up to respond
c.
response rates typically increase
d.
response bias can no longer be estimated
e.
all of the above
 

 16. 

A key problem of secondary analysis is
a.
cost
b.
validity
c.
sample selection
d.
data collection strategies
e.
questionnaire construction
 

 17. 

In general, survey research is
a.
strong on reliability and strong on validity
b.
strong on reliability and weak on validity
c.
weak on reliability and strong on validity
d.
weak on reliability and weak on validity
e.
reliability and validity are not issues that concern researchers who use the survey technique
 

 18. 

Interview surveys have a number of advantages over mail surveys; which of the following is NOT one of those advantages?
a.
higher response rates
b.
there is generally a smaller number of "don't knows" and "no answers"
c.
there is a smaller number of relevant responses given to a question
d.
observations can be made
e.
all of the above are advantages of the interview
 

 19. 

During an interviewer training session, Jones, a trainee, asks you, "What should I do
if. . . ?" You tell Jones
a.
check the specifications
b.
do whatever you think is most appropriate in that situation
c.
it will not happen
d.
call me, if it happens
e.
jot down problems and skip that part of the interview
 

 20. 

Assume that the following would be reasonable conversational questions/statements based on a subject's previous statement. Which is(are) the best probe(s)?
a.
"In what way is that a better job?"
b.
"How is that a better job?"
c.
"Tell me more about why that's a better job."
d.
"Can you tell me more about how that's a better job?"
e.
All of the above are good probes.
 

 21. 

Contingency questions are used to
a.
increase the likelihood of responses from those for whom the questions are relevant
b.
spare respondents the frustration of reading and puzzling over questions that are irrelevant to them
c.
enable the researcher to ask several questions that have the same set of answer categories
d.
all of the above
e.
only a and b are correct
 

 22. 

Which guideline does the following questionnaire item violate? "Would you not say that crime is not a serious problem in the U.S.?"
a.
Avoid double-barreled questions.
b.
Avoid short items.
c.
Avoid leading the respondent.
d.
Avoid meaningful questions.
e.
Avoid negative items.
 

 23. 

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the telephone interview as compared to the face-to-face interview?
a.
Saves time
b.
Less expensive
c.
Safer
d.
No interviewer bias
e.
All of the above are advantages of the telephone interview
 

 24. 

Which of the following advantages of the interview may raise ethical issues?
a.
its higher response rate
b.
its fewer number of "don't knows"
c.
the ability of interviewers to clarify questions
d.
the ability of interviewers to observe respondents as well as ask questions
e.
none of the above raise ethical issues
 
 
Professor Wilton

Professor Wilton decided to test whether blondes have more fun. Wilton surveyed 600 people and obtained the following results:

 
HAIR COLOR
FUN
Blondes
Nonblondes
Total
Report fun
250
50
300
Report no fun
150
150
300
Total
400
200
600
 

 25. 

Refer to Professor Wilton. The BEST way to percentage this table is
a.
within columns, down
b.
within rows, across
c.
divide each cell by 600
d.
within columns, across
e.
within rows, down
 

 26. 

Which of the following is(are) aimed primarily at explanation?
a.
univariate analysis
b.
multivariate analysis
c.
bivariate analysis
d.
all of the above
e.
only b and c are correct
 
 
Crimes

A friend showed you the following table:

Total Arrests by Type of Crime and Sex
 
SEX
Type of Crime
Male
Female
Violent
20%
30%
Property
80%
70%
Total
100%
100%
 
(800)
(400)
No answer =
(20)
(20)
 

 27. 

Refer to Crimes. Your friend asked you what to do to improve the table. Your best answer would be
a.
nothing, the table is fine
b.
add frequencies to each cell
c.
omit the "no answer" category since these cases are not included in the analysis
d.
the table should be percentaged within categories of type of crime
e.
the base for the percentages should be included
 

 28. 

Refer to Crimes. What percentage of males committed a violent crime?
a.
20
b.
30
c.
80
d.
70
e.
not enough information to calculate
 

 29. 

Given the following age distribution, the mean is
18, 33, 7, 32, 6, 5, 4
a.
4
b.
7
c.
15
d.
32
e.
cannot compute from the information given
 

 30. 

Professor Smith found a relationship between education and occupation. However, when age was introduced as a test factor, the relationship between education and occupation disappeared in the partials. This illustrates
a.
specification
b.
explanation
c.
interpretation
d.
replication
e.
spurious relationship
 

 31. 

The difference between interpretation and explanation is
a.
a logical difference
b.
a statistical difference
c.
that the partials are reduced in explanation but not in interpretation
d.
that the partials are reduced in interpretation but not in explanation
e.
all of the above
 
 
Marital Status Tables

TABLE A: WOMEN'S MARITAL STATUS BY THEIR LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

 
CURRENTLY MARRIED
IN LABOR
 
YES
NO
FORCE
Yes
  48%
  75%
 
No
  52%
  25%
 
Total
100%
100%
  
(500)
(500)

TABLE B: FOR WOMEN UNDER 35 YEARS OF AGE: MARITAL STATUS BY LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

 
CURRENTLY MARRIED
IN LABOR
 
YES
NO
FORCE
Yes
  50%
  80%
 
No
  50%
  20%
 
Total
100%
100%
  
(200)
(200)

TABLE C: FOR WOMEN 35-65: MARITAL STATUS BY LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

 
CURRENTLY MARRIED
IN LABOR
 
YES
NO
FORCE
Yes
  45%
  70%
 
No
  55%
  30%
 
Total
100%
100%
  
(200)
(200)

TABLE D: FOR WOMEN 65 & OLDER: MARITAL STATUS BY LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

 
CURRENTLY MARRIED
IN LABOR
 
YES
NO
FORCE
Yes
  47%
  75%
 
No
  53%
  25%
 
Total
100%
100%
  
(100)
(100)
 

 32. 

Refer to the Marital Status Tables. Your friend asks for your methodological opinion on what the preceding four tables indicate. You should tell her
a.
replication
b.
specification
c.
explanation
d.
interpretation
e.
none of the above
 

 33. 

You notice a positive relationship between the number of children in a family and father's occupational prestige. When you control for mother's occupational prestige, the partials become negative in sign. This illustrates
a.
specification
b.
a distorter variable
c.
a suppressor variable
d.
explanation
e.
interpretation
 

 34. 

Deciding whether the partials are significantly different from the original table is(are)
a.
an arbitrary decision
b.
based on your judgment
c.
follows a rigorous procedure
d.
requires additional testing
e.
only a and b are correct
 
 
Education and Income

A relationship was found between education and income. Tables A and B are the partials controlling for sex.

 
TABLE A
TABLE B
 
MALES
FEMALES
     
 
EDUCATION
EDUCATION
INCOME
No H.S.
H.S.
No H.S.
H.S.
Less than $10,000
70%
40%
70%
70%
More than $10,000
30%
60%
30%
30%
Total
100%
100%
100%
100%
 

 35. 

Refer to Education and Income. What do these tables indicate?
a.
replication
b.
specification
c.
explanation
d.
distorter
e.
interpretation
 



 
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