Contemporary Philosophical Jurisprudence

A Select and Selectively Annotated Bibliography


The following bibliography makes no pretensions to completeness.  I have listed (and in some cases annotated) titles that are widely recognized as important as well as those so recognized (as yet) only by me. 


Surveys and Reference Books


  • Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Ed. Jules Coleman and Scott Shapiro. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.  This is really the state-of-the-art survey.  Weighing in at over 1,000 pages, it conveys the most complete whole picture of jurisprudence as it stands today in the Anglo-American world.  The contributions are almost all first-rate and by the most authoritative authors.  The only problem with it (other than the hernia risk from carrying it around) is the price. 
  • Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory
  • Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory
  • Harris, J.W. Legal Philosophies. 2d ed. London: Butterworths, 1997.  This is the standard book used by students studying for jurisprudence examinations in Britain.  It is keyed to the standard topics in Oxford-style jurisprudence, but also has good surveys of somewhat more recherché topics, like Scandinavian realism and sociological jurisprudence.  The chapters are concise and very helpful with good bibliographies. 
  • Kelly, J.M.  A Short History of Legal Theory.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
  • Murphy, Jeffrie G. and Jules L. Coleman. Philosophy of Law: An Introduction to Jurisprudence. Rev. ed. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.  This is a very common undergraduate textbook used in the U.S. (the first edition was the one used in the legal theory course I had in college).  It goes into more detail about the topics treated than Harris, but treats fewer topics.  It’s best on the big picture questions, which are the subject matter of most undergraduate legal philosophy courses.
  • Patton, George Whitecross. A Text-book of Jurisprudence. 4th ed. G. Patton and David P. Durham. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.  I list this as a specimen of the sort of text on jurisprudence that used to be standard in (especially British) law schools.  It is a synthetic treatment of jurisprudence based on both law and philosophy (but more on case law and scholarship based thereon) and is organized by topic.  It’s a recent edition, but still shows how jurisprudence was studies pre-Hart.  The book is still useful on many questions (as are others like it, e.g., ). 


Important Journals


Oxford Journal of Legal Studies

Cambridge Law Journal

Legal Theory

Ratio Juris

Law and Philosophy

Journal of Legal Studies

The American Journal of Jurisprudence


Internet Resources


Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Legal Theory Blog

Mirror of Justice


Classical Natural Right

A.    Primary Texts

·        Plato Minos, Gorgias, Laws

·        Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics (esp. I, and V, 7), Politics I, III, VII, Rhetoric I, 10-15

·        Xenophon Memorabilia (esp. IV, 4)

·        Cicero On Duties, On the Republic, On the Laws (esp. I, vi, 19-xii, 34)

·        St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, I-II, 90-97

A.   General Works on Classical Natural Right (some also touch on medieval views)

·        Crowe, Michael Bertram. The Changing Profile of the Natural Law. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1977.

·        Koester, Helmut. “;?9?G MKE+SG: The Concept of Natural Law in Greek Thought.” In Religion in Antiquity: Essays in Memory of Erwin Ramsdell Goodenough. Ed. Jacob Neusner. Leiden: Brill, 1968.

·        Rommen, Heinrich A. The Natural Law. Trans. T.R. Hanley. St. Louis: Herder, 1947.

·        Simon, Yves R. The Tradition of Natural Law. New York: Fordham University Press, 1992 [1965].

·        Strauss, Leo. Natural Right and History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953

·        Strauss, Leo. “On Natural Law.” In Strauss, Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy. Ed. T.L. Pangle. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1983.

·        Striker, Gisela. “Origins of the Concept of Natural Law.” In Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy. Vol. 2. Ed. John J. Cleary. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.

·        Voegelin, Eric. “What is Right By Nature.” In Voegelin, Anamnesis. Trans. and ed. Gerhart Niemeyer. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1978.

B.   Some works dealing with medieval natural law (especially Aquinas)

·        Bradley, Dennis J.M. Aquinas on the Twofold Human Good. Washington, D.C.: Catholic           Uni. Of America    Pres, 1997.

·        Finnis, John. Aquinas: Moral, Political, and Legal Thought. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.

·        Fortin, Ernest. “Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and the Problem of Natural Law.”           Mediaevalia 4 (1978): 179-208.

·        Gilby, Thomas. The Political Thought of Thomas Aquinas. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958.

·        Goerner, EA. “On Thomistic Natural Law: The Bad Man’s View of Thomistic Natural Right.” Political Theory 7 (1979): 101-22.

·        Goerner, E.A. “On Thomistic Natural Right: The Good Man’s View of Thomistic Natural Law.” Political Theory 11 (1983): 393-418.

·        Goerner, E.A. and W.J. Thompson. “Politics and Coercion.” Political Theory 24 (1996):           620-52.

·        Grisez, Germain G. “The First Principle of Practical Reason: A Commentary on Summa theologiae 1-2, Question 94, Article 2.” Natural Law Forum 10 (1965): 168-201.

·        Hall Pamela M. Narrative and the Natural Law. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

·        Hittinger, Russell. “Natural Law in the Positive Laws: A Legislative or Adjudicative Issue?” Review of Politics 55 (1993): 5-34.

·        Jaffa, Harry. Thomism and Aristotelianism. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1952.

·        Kretzmann, Norman. “LEX INIUSTA NON EST LEX: Laws on Trial in Aquinas’ Court of Conscience.”         American Journal of Jurisprudence 33 (1988): 99-122.

·        Lisska, Anthony J. Aquinas’s Theory of Natural Law: An Analytic Reconstruction. Oxford: Clarendon    Press, 1996.

·        Lottin, Odon. Le Droit Naturel chez Saint Thomas d’Aquin et ses prédécesseurs. 2d ed. Bruges: Beyaert,    1931.

·        Nelson, Daniel Mark. The Priority of Prudence: Virtue and Natural Law in Thomas Aquinas and the    Implications for Modern Ethics. University Park, Pa.: Penn State Univ. Press, 1992.

·        Villey, Michel. Questions de Saint Thomas sur le droit et la politique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de    France, 1987.

·        Westberg, Daniel. Right Practical Reason: Aristotle, Action and Prudence in Aquinas. Oxford: Clarendon          Press, 1994.


Modern Natural Right

A.   Major Primary Works

·        Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), De jure belli et pacis (1625)

·        Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Leviathan (1651)

·        Samuel Pufendorf (1632-94), De iure naturae et gentium (1672)

·        John Locke (1632-1704), Essays on the Law of Nature (c. 1665)

·        Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690)

·        Christian Thomasius (1655-1728), Fundamenta juris naturae, (1705)

·        Jean Jacques Burlamaqui (1694-1748), Principes du Droit Naturelle (1747)

·        Emmerich von Vattel (1714-67), Droit des Gens ou Principes de la Loi Naturelle (1758)

B.   Some Secondary Literature

·        Gierke, Otto. Natural law and the Theory of Society 1500-1800. Trans. E. Barker.  Boston: Beacon Press,       1957.

·        Haakonssen, Knud. Natural Law and Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scotish Enlightenment.     Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

·        Schneewind, J.B. The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.  Part I.

·        Strauss, Leo. Natural Right and History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953, cc.           5-6.


Origins of Analytical Jurisprudence

A.   Works of Bentham

·        Works of Jeremy Bentham. Ed. J. Bowring.  11 vols. Edinburgh: Tait, 1838-43.

·        A Fragment on Government [1776]. Ed, J.H. Burns and H.L.A. Hart. Cambridge: Cambridge University    Press, 1988.

·        An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation [1789]. Ed. J.H. Burns and  H.L.A. Hart.          London: Athlone Press, 1970.

·        Of Laws in General. Ed. H.L.A. Hart. London: Athlone Press, 1970.

B.   Studies and Background

·        Blackstone, William. Commentaries on the Laws of England [1765], vol. 1, Introduction.

·        Halévy, Elie. The Growth of Philosophical Radicalism. Trans. M. Morris. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955.

·        Hart, H.L.A. Essays on Bentham. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982

·        Postema, Gerald. Bentham and the Common Law Tradition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

·        Schneewind, J.B. The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.  Part III.


The Command Theory of Law

A.   Austin

·        Austin, John. Lectures on Jurisprudence. 5th ed. London: John Murray, 1885 (1st ed., 1863). 2 vols.

·        Austin, John. The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (1832). Ed. H.L.A. Hart. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1954.

·        Mill, John Stuart. “Austin on Jurisprudence.” In Dissertations and Discussions, vol. 4. New York: Henry Holt, 1874.

·        Morison, W.L. John Austin. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1982.

B.   Kelsen

·        Hans Kelsen. Introduction to the Problems of Legal Theory. Trans. B.L. Paulson and S.L. Paulson. Oxford:   Clarendon Press, 1992.  This is a translation of the first edition of Kelsen’s Reine Rechtslehre (Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1934).

·        ----------. General Theory of Law and State. Trans. A. Wedberg. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1946.

·        ----------. Pure Theory of Law. Trans. M Knight. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1970.  This is a translation of the second edition of Reine Rechtslehre (Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1960).

·        ----------. What is Justice? Justice, Law, and Politics in the Mirror of Science. Berkeley: Univ. of California           Press, 1957.

·        ----------. General Theory of Norms. Trans. M. Hartney. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Translation of Kelsen’s Allgemeine Theorie der Normen (Vienna: Manz, 1979).

·        George, Robert P. “Kelsen and Aquinas on ‘The Natural Law Doctrine’.” Notre Dame Law Review 75 (2000): 1625-46.

·        Hart, H.L.A. Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983. Chapters 14-15.

·        Métall, Rudolph. Hans Kelsen: Leben und Werk. Vienna: Deuticke, 1969.

·        Paulson, Stanley L. and B.L. Paulson, eds. Normativity and Norms: Critical Perspectives on Kelsenian Themes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

·        Raz, Joseph. “The Purity of the Pure Theory.” In Paulson and Paulson, Normativity and Norms.

·        ----------. The Authority of Law. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1979. Chapters 7-8.

·        Tur, Richard and William Twining, eds. Essays on Kelsen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

·        Walter, Robert. Hans Kelsen: Ein Leben im Dienste der Wissenschaft. Vienna: Manz, 1985.

C.   Other Studies

·        Finnis, John M. “On the Incoherence of Legal Positivism.” Notre Dame Law Review 75 (2000): 1597-1611.

·        Fuller, Lon. “Positivism and Fidelity to Law: A Reply to Professor Hart.” Harvard Law Review 71 (1958): 630-72.

·        George, Robert P., ed. The Autonomy of Law: Essays on Legal Positivism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

·        Hart, H.L.A. “Definition and Theory in Jurisprudence.” In Hart, Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983).

·        ----------. “Legal Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals.” Harvard Law Review 71 (1958): 593-629 and in Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy.

·        ----------. The Concept of Law Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961, ch. 1-4.

·        Raz, Joseph. The Concept of a Legal System. Oxford: Clarendon, 1970.


American Legal Realism

A.   Primary Sources

·        Frank, Jerome. Law and the Modern Mind. New York: Anchor, 6th ed., 1963 [1st ed., 1930]

·        ----------. “Mr. Justice Holmes and Non-Euclidean Legal Thinking.” Cornell Law Quarterly 17 (1932):    568-603.

·        Fisher, William and M.J. Horowitz, T.A. Reed, eds. American Legal Realism. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

·        Fuller, L.L. “American Legal Realism.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 82 (1934): 429-62.

·        Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. “Codes and the Arrangement of the Law.” American Law Review 5 (1870): 1-13 and in F.R. Kellog, The Formative Essays of Justice Holmes. Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press,       1984.

·        ----------. The Common Law. Boston: Little Brown, 1881.

·        ----------. Collected Legal Papers. Boston: Little Brown, 1920.

·        Llewellyn, Karl A. The Bramble Bush: Our Law and Its Study. New York: Oceana, 1960 [1930]

·        ----------. “A Realistic Jurisprudence—The Next Step.” Columbia Law Review 30 (1930): 431-65.

·        ----------. “Some Realism About Realism.” Harvard Law Review 44 (1931): 1222-63.

·        ----------. “The Normative, the Legal, and the Law-Jobs: The Problem of Juristic Method.” Yale Law Journal 49 (1940): 1355-1400.

·        Pound, Roscoe. “The Call For a Realist Jurisprudence.” Harvard Law Review 44 (1931): 697-711.

B.   Secondary

·        Duxbury, Neil. Patterns in American Jurisprudence. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Ch. 1-2.

·        Hart, H.L.A. Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy. Ch. 4, 13.

·        Purcell, Edward A. The Crisis of Democratic Theory: Scientific Naturalism and the Problem of Value. Lexington, Ky.: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1973. Ch. 5, 9.

·        Twining, William. Karl Llewellyn and the Realist Movement. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1973.


Hart’s Theory of Law

A.   Primary

·        Hart, H.L.A. and A.M. Honoré. Causation in the Law, 2d. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985 [1st ed. 1959]

·        Hart, H.L.A. The Concept of Law, 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992 [1st ed. 1961]

·        ----------. Law, Liberty and Morality. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1963.

·        ----------. The Morality of the Criminal Law: Two Lectures. London: Oxford Univ. Press/ Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1965.

·        ----------. Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

·        ----------. Essays on Bentham. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.

·        ----------. Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon, 1983.

B.   Secondary & Critical

·        Bayles, M.D. Hart’s Legal Philosophy. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1992.

·        Dworkin, Ronald. Taking Rights Seriously. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1977, cc. 2-3.

·        Fuller, Lon. “Positivism and Fidelity to Law: A Response to Professor Hart.” Harvard Law Review71 (1958): 630-72.

·        ----------. The Morality of Law. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1964, c. 3 (especially).

·        Gavison, Ruth. Issues in Contemporary Legal Philosophy: The Influence of H.L.A. Hart. New York:   Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.

·        Hacker, P.M.S. and Raz, J. Law, Morality and Society: Essays in Honor of H.L.A. Hart. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.

·        Hart, H.L.A.  “Lon L. Fuller: The Morality of Law.” In Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy, c. 16.

·        ----------. “Postscript” in The Concept of Law, 2d ed., pp. 238-76 (mostly a reply to Dworkin)

·        Honoré, Tony. “Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart: 1907-1992.” Proceedings of the British Academy 84          (1994): 295-321

·        Kanowicz, L. “The Place of Sanctions in Professor Hart’s Concept of Law.” Duquesne Law Review (1966-       67).

·        MacCormick, Neil. Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978. Appendix.

·        ----------. H.L.A. Hart. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1981

·        Martin, Michael. The Legal Philosophy of H.L.A. Hart: A Critical Appraisal. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1987.

·        Raz, Joseph. The Concept of a Legal System. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980 [1st ed. 1970].

·        ----------. The Authority of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979, cc. 6, 9, 11.

·        Taylor, E.H. “H.L.A. Hart’s Concept of Law in the Perspective of American Legal Realism.” Modern Law         Review 35 (1972): 606-20.


John Finnis and the New Natural Law

·        Finnis, John. Natural Law and Natural Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

·        ----------. “Natural Law and Legal Reasoning.” In Natural Law Theory, ed. R. George.

·        ----------. “Is Natural Law Theory Compatible With Limited Government.” In Natural Law, Liberalism, and    Morality. Ed. Robert P. George. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

·        Fortin, Ernest L. “The New Rights Theory and the Natural Law.” Review of Politics 44 (1982): 590-612.

·        George, Robert P., ed. Natural Law Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

·        ----------. Making Men Moral: Civil Liberties and Public Morality. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

·        ----------. In Defense of Natural Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

·        George, Robert P. and Christopher Wolfe, ed. Natural Law and Public Reason. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press, 2000.

·        Hittinger, Russell. A Critique of the New Natural Law Theory. Notre Dame, Indiana: Univ. of Notre Dame           Press, 1987.

·        ----------. “Varieties of Minimalist Natural Law.” American Journal of Jurisprudence 34 (1989): 133-70.

·        MacCormick, Neil. “Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morality.” In Natural Law Theory, ed. George.

·        Macedo, Stephen. “Against the Old Sexual Morality of the New Natural Law.” In Natural Law, Liberalism and Morality, ed. R. George.

·        Moore, Michael S. “Moral Reality.” Wisconsin Law Review (1982): 1061-1156.

·        ----------. “A Natural Law Theory of Interpretation.” Southern California Law Review 58 (1985): 279-398.

·        Symposia published in:

o       Michigan Law Review 90 (1992)

o       Notre Dame Law Review 75, 5 (August 2000).

o       Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 4, 3 (Summer 1995).

o       U.C. Davis Law Review 26 (1993)

·        Weinreb, Lloyd. Natural Law and Justice. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1987.


Dworkin’s Theory of Law

A.   Primary

·        Dworkin, Ronald. Taking Rights Seriously. Rev. ed. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1978 [1st ed. 1977]

·        ----------. A Matter of Principle. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985.

·        ----------. Law’s Empire. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1986.

·        ----------. Life’s Dominion. New York: Vintage, 1993.

·        ----------. Freedom’s Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution. Cambridge: Harvard Univ.        Press, 1996.

·        ----------. Sovereign Virtue. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 2000.

B.   Secondary

·        Cohen, M. Ed. Ronald Dworkin and Contemporary Jurisprudence. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield,        1984.

·        Finnis, John M. “Reason and Authority in Law’s Empire.” Law and Philosophy 6 (1987): 357-80.

·        Fish, Stanley. “So Wrong After All These Years” in ibid.

·        Guest, Stephen. Ronald Dworkin. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

·        Hart, H.L.A. The Concept of Law. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon Pres, 1994. Postscript.

·        Moore, Michael S. “Metaphysics, Epistemology and Legal Theory.” Southern California Law Review 60      (1987): 453-506.


Obligation to Obey the Law

·        Smith, M.B.E. “Is There a Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law?” Yale Law Journal   82 (1973): 950- 76.

·        Smith, M.B.E. “Concerning Lawful Illegality.” Yale Law Journal 83 (1974): 1534-49.

·        Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1977), cc. 7-8

·        Joseph Raz, The Authority of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), cc. 12, 13

·        John Finnis, “The Authority of Law and the Predicament of Contemporary Social Theory,” Notre Dame          Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 1 (1984)

·        Jeremy Waldron, “Special Ties and Natural Duties,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1993)


Theories of Punishment

·        Jeremy Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1781), cc. 13-15

·        H.L.A. Hart, Punishment and Responsibility (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), esp. cc. 1, 7

·        C.S. Lewis, “The Humanitarian Theory of Punishment,” in God in the Dock (1985)

·        Ted Honderich, Punishment: The Supposed Justifications, 2d ed. 1989

·        Richard Posner, Economic Analysis of Law, ch. 7



·        W.N. Hohfeld, “Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied to Judicial Reasoning,” Yale LawJournal 23 (1913): 16-59 (=Fundamental Legal Conceptions, ch. 1)

·        H.L.A. Hart, “Are There Any Natural Rights?” in Theories of Rights, ed. Jeremy Waldron (Oxford: OUP, 1984), 77-90 [orig. in Philosophical Review 64 (1955): 175-91.

·        A.M. Honoré, “Rights of Exclusion and Immunities Against Divesting,” Tulane Law Review 34 (1960): 453-68.

·        Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1964), 133-45

·        John Finnis, “Some Professorial Fallacies About Rights,” Adelaide Law Review 4 (1972): 377-88.

·        Ronald Dworkin, “Taking Rights Seriously,” (1970) in Taking Rights Seriously           (Cambridge: Harvard Univ., Press, 1978), ch. 7.

·        H.L.A. Hart, “Legal Rights” [1973] in Essays on Bentham (Oxford: Clarendon, 1982), 162-93

·        Neil MacCormick, “Children’s Rights: A Test Case for Theories of Right” [1976] in Legal Right and    Social Democracy (Oxford: Clarendon, 1983), ch. 8

·        Neil MacCormick, “Rights in Legislation,” in Law, Morality and Society: Essays in Honor of H.L.A. Hart, ed. P.M.S. Hacker and J. Raz (Oxford: Clarendon, 1977), 189-209.

·        John M. Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), pp. 19-210, 218-21, 226-29

·        Joseph Raz, The Morality of Freedom (Oxford: Clarendon, 1986), ch. 7, 10

·        Fred D. Miller, Jr., Nature, Justice, and Rights in Aristotle’s “Politics” (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), c.     4







The Origins of Analytical Jurisprudence


American Legal Realism


H.L.A. Hart’s Theory of Law


Subsequent Refinements of Legal Positivism


John Finnis’s “New Natural Law”


Other Recent Natural Law Works


Ronald Dworkin’s “Law as Integrity”